Python’s context managers are the general mechnism underlying the “with” statement. They’re a nice abstraction of doing a thing, and then later undoing it. The classic example is opening a file and then later closing it:
with open("some_file.txt") as f:
# do things with f..
# f is closed by the time you get here.
But context managers can be used for other do-then-later-undo types of behavior. Here’s a context manager that changes the current directory, then later changes it back:
"""Change directory, and then change back.
Use as a context manager, it will give you the new directory,
and later restore the old one.
old_dir = os.getcwd()
# do something while in the new directory.
Context managers are objects that have __enter__ and __exit__ methods, but here we’ve used a very handy decorator from contextlib to make a context manager using the yield statement.
Now, suppose you have a context manager that neatly encapsulates your needed behavior, and further suppose that you are writing unit tests, and wish to get this behavior in your setUp and tearDown methods. How do you do it?
You can’t use a with statement, because you need the “do” part of the context manager to happen in setUp, and then you need the “later undo” part of it to happen in tearDown. The syntax-indicated scope of the with statement won’t work.
You can do it using the context manager protocol directly to perform the actions you need. And unittest has a mechanism better than tearDown: addCleanup takes a callable, and guarantees to call it when the test is done. So both the before-test logic and the after-test logic can be expressed in one place.
Here’s how: write a helper function to use a context manager in a setUp function:
def setup_with_context_manager(testcase, cm):
"""Use a contextmanager to setUp a test case."""
val = cm.__enter__()
testcase.addCleanup(cm.__exit__, None, None, None)
Now where you would have used a context manager like this:
with ctxmgr(a, b, c) as v:
# do something with v
you can do this in your setUp function:
self.v = setup_with_context_manager(self, ctxmgr(a, b, c))
# do something with self.v
Simple and clean.
Notice that @contextlib.contextmanager lets us write a generator, then use a decorator to turn it into a context manager. There’s a lot of Python features at work here in a very small space, which is kind of cool. Then we use addCleanup to take a callable as a first-class object to get the clean up we need, which is even more cool.
One caveat about this technique: a context manager’s __exit__ method can be called with information about an exception in progress. The mechanism shown here will never do that. I’m not sure it even should, considering how it’s being used in a test suite. But just beware.