Created 10 October 2002, last updated 19 October 2004
The most important concept in designing software systems is the interface. It is the construct that allows a divide-and-conquer approach to building large systems.
The term “object-oriented programming” (or OOP) is overused these days, and means different things to different people. In my opinion, the most important aspect of OOP is the realization that the behavior of objects are their most important characteristic, and that different classes can behave the same as far as external callers are concerned.
At the heart of this design technique is treating interfaces themselves as first-class citizens, as independent as possible from the classes that support or use the interfaces. Java did a wonderful thing by creating interfaces as a language construct in their own right, but you don’t need explicit language support to achieve the benefits of interface-centered design.
So what exactly is an interface?
An interface is a definition of a set of methods, and nothing more.
There are no implementations, there are no data members. There are just semantics of methods. Interfaces can derive from other interfaces (Java uses the keyword “extends” for this relationship).
Other terms have been used for this idea. “Polymorphic programming” explicitly gets at the concept that differently shaped (“polymorphic”) objects can be treated uniformly. “Design By Contract” focuses on the fact that method semantics are an agreement between the caller and the implementer about precisely what each can expect from the other.
(My son Max read this page, and said, “interface sounds like a bunch of faces”, like the way the Internet is a bunch of nets. In a way, he’s right: all an interface defines is the outward face of a bunch of methods. So an interface is a bunch of faces.)
So why is this so important? The key reason is divide-and-conquer. By hiding implementations behind well-defined interfaces, the implementer of a class and the user of the class don’t have to know so much about each other; they don’t have to be so tightly bound. This provides a number of benefits:
- The implementation can change without the caller changing.
- The caller can change without the implementation changing.
- The specific class used as the implementation can change without the caller knowing.
To get the most from interfaces, it pays to put extra effort into thinking about precisely what the semantics of the methods are. In fact, I’ll so far as to say:
If you only have to time to make a good interface or a good implementation, but not both, make a good interface.
The reason is this: once a good interface has been put in place, the poor implementation can be improved later without making a big change to the system. If the interface is poor, then when the change comes (and it will, even with a good implementation), the effect will be much more far-reaching.
Besides, sometimes choosing a good implementation over a bad one is optimizing cases that don’t need it. Write a good-enough implementation, and change it later if it really needs to be changed.
Since the interface is the contract between the caller and the implementer, and you want these two to know as little about each other as possible, it makes sense:
When designing interfaces, promise as little as possible.
Which is to say that the semantics of methods should specify everything they need to, and no more. Think hard about precisely what the caller needs to know about the implementer. The less you say in the interface, the less you’ve constrained the implementations of your interface, and the more flexibility you’ll have in implementing them.
As an interface designer trying to promise as little as possible, don’t be afraid to use the bluntest tool in your box: “undefined”. Not everything needs to be spelled out, and cases can be explicitly reserved for the implementer to decide at his convenience. If the caller shouldn’t care, don’t be afraid to say it’s undefined. It doesn’t mean you haven’t done your job: it means you’ve thought carefully about who needs to know what, and you’ve decided the caller doesn’t need to know.
You may be saying to yourself, “all of this is very nice, but really, how often am I going to be implementing the same interface more than once?”. The answer is, “more often than you’d guess”. There are classic obvious example of an interface that needs more than one implementation. For example, for portability, you may have an interface to OS operations. Then for each platform you port to, you implement the OS interface for that platform. But there are other reasons to need more than one.
To generalize the operating system example, any chunk of code will depend on other software to help it perform its duties. For example, a logging subsystem may be used. If I’m building an page generation engine, and want to log messages, I don’t care precisely how those messages are logged. If I use an ILog interface to isolate my engine from the logging system, then the logging system can be changed without affecting my code. If my engine is used in a desktop application, ILog could be implemented as a scrolling message window. If the engine is used in a server environment, ILog could be implemented as a disk file.
In every large system I’ve built, I’ve wanted to test part of it in isolation (a unit test). Doing this requires stubbing out the other parts, or replacing them with test harnesses. This is all made much easier if those parts are implementations of well-defined interfaces. Then the stub code can simply be another implementation of the same interface. With a proper factory in place to provide the stub implementation transparently, the code under test doesn’t have to be changed at all.
Interfaces also help with testing code by allowing you more control over the variety of behaviors exhibited by a chunk of software. For example, how do you test your system to see if it behaves correctly when it is running out of memory? One way is to run your software on a machine with very little memory, or to artificially consume the memory on a normal machine. But a more controlled method is to have your memory allocator pretend it is out of memory. If your memory allocator is accessed through an interface, then it is a simple matter to write a new allocator which lies about being out of memory. This same technique can be used to test failure scenarios throughout your code. If you have an IDatabase interface implemented by COracleDatabase, you can create a CPathologicallyFailingDatabase implementation (perhaps as a decorator over COracleDatabase) to test how your code deals with database failures.
Java leads the pack due to their “interface” keyword. The language introduced interfaces more as a way to avoid multiple inheritance than as a way to encourage well-modularized designs, but in any case, Java provides excellent support for designing explicit interfaces.
In C++, the typical technique is to create a class with nothing but public pure virtual methods. This works well, and gives the same semantics of the Java keyword. One thing to be careful of, though: the compiler doesn’t treat this class differently. If using multiple inheritance (as you almost certainly will be when dealing with interfaces), you must still face C++’s thorny multiple inheritance problems.
Python has no formal support for interfaces. The question of how to emulate interfaces in Python comes up often, and there is a proposal to add them to Python (PEP 245). But interfaces as a formal concept doesn’t fit naturally into existing Python. This is because Python’s dynamic typing doesn’t concern itself with the class of objects, but with their reaction to method invocation. As a result, there is no way (yet) to declare that an object implements an interface (and PEP 245 describes them as “interface assertions”). If the object supports all the methods in the interface, then it implements the interface. It’s as simple as that. In some ways, Python has embraced interfaces to the point that they are invisible in the language: all that matters about an object is its behavior. Despite this, I have tried to use interfaces in Python, with mixed results: see A quest for pythonic interfaces for details.