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Looks like the venerable MD5 cryptographic hash has developed a crack: A real MD5 collision. A team has published two different input streams which hash to the same MD5 value. Of course, because of the pigeonhole principle, everyone knew this had to happen. But no one had ever found a pair before.
Now that they have, researchers will be working on the question of whether it is feasible to compute, for any given input stream, a different stream with the same hash. If that happens, then MD5 is useless cryptographically, and a lot of infrastructure will have to be thrown out, but not before a bunch of bad stuff (like theft and fraud) happens.
Mark Pilgrim provides this Python program to demonstrate:
Running it prints: