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One of the perks of maintaining coverage.py is that you get some really interesting bug reports. Digging into them can be a good way to learn about some obscure corners of Python.
Today's bug was that a piece of product code succeeded when run without coverage.py, and succeeded when run under the C tracer, but failed when run under the Python tracer. I should explain: the heart of coverage.py is the trace function invoked by CPython on every line of exection. Coverage.py has two implementations of its trace function: one in C for speed, and another simpler one in Python for maximum flexibility. The bug report was that one of the implementations caused the product code to fail, and the other did not.
The product code in question looked like this:
def wacky(x, y):
The intent of this code was that args_keys would be the list ['x', 'y']. The code failed because the list was actually ['x', 'y', 'args']. At the moment locals() is called, there are only two local names, x and y, and running under Python gives us the answer we expected. How could running the code under coverage.py cause this change in behavior?
Playing around with it some more, it became clear that it was nothing about coverage.py in particular, it was the presence of a trace function, any trace function, that would cause the change:
Running this code on any version of Python produces:
Without the trace function, either before one was registered, or after it was un-registered, the list is ['y', 'x']. But with a trace function, it's ['y', 'x', 'args'].
Thinking it might be a bug in CPython, I searched the bug database, and found ticket 7083, which explained what's going on.
The locals() function is trickier than it appears at first glance. The returned value is a dictionary which is a copy of the local symbol table. This is why changing the dict might not actually change the local variables.
The copy is made when locals() is called, so in our code, the dict has keys 'x' and 'y'. But in fact, the same dict is returned every time you call locals(), but updated to the new contents of the local symbols.
Here's the important (subtle) fact about how CPython works:
When a trace function is in effect, the local symbol table is copied into the locals() dictionary after every statement.
This means that when "args = locals()" is executed, args is simply a reference to the locals() dictionary. Without a trace function, that dictionary is updated only when locals() is called. So the assignment to args isn't reflected in the dictionary.
But with a trace function, after executing "args = locals()", the locals() dict is updated again, copying the name "args" into it. As with all mutable values in Python, when the value is changed in-place, all references see the changed value, so now "args" refers to a dict with the keys, "x", "y", and "args".
The reason the locals are copied after every statement is simple: the trace function is executed after every statement, and to make building debuggers and other tools possible, the locals dict is updated so that the trace function has an accurate view of the current state. But that updating is expensive, and without a trace function, unnecessary. So it's only done when a trace function is registered.
Most Python programs have no trace function registered, but coverage of course uses one to collect data. So the program behaves differently under coverage than without it.
The fix is simple: make a copy of the locals() dict instead of using it directly:
def wacky(x, y):
By copying the dictionary with dict(), we get an independent copy that won't see the changes when the locals dict is updated for the trace function.
BTW: a remaining mystery is why the original bug report said that one trace function worked, but the other didn't. I'm still trying to track that down, but I think perhaps coverage.py wasn't really in effect for the case that worked.
One last question: is there a way to explain this in the docs that makes the point without going into too much detail?
tagged: python» 6 reactions